The Role of Situatedness in Immersive Dam Visualization: Comparing Proxied with Immediate Approaches


The Role of Situatedness in Immersive Dam Visualization: Comparing Proxied with Immediate Approaches


Nuno Verdelho Trindade, Pedro Leitão, Daniel Gonçalves, Sérgio Oliveira, and Alfredo Ferreira




Computers 2024, 13, 35, DOI: 10.3390/computers13020035


Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute



Dam safety control is a multifaceted activity that requires analysis, monitoring, and structural behavior prediction. It entails interpreting vast amounts of data from sensor networks integrated into dam structures. The application of extended reality technologies for situated immersive analysis allows data to be contextualized directly over the physical referent. Such types of visual contextualization have been known to improve analytical reasoning and decision making. This study presents DamVR, a virtual reality tool for off-site, proxied situated structural sensor data visualization. In addition to describing the tool’s features, it evaluates usability and usefulness with a group of 22 domain experts. It also compares its performance with an existing augmented reality tool for the on-site, immediate situated visualization of structural data. Participant responses to a survey reflect a positive assessment of the proxied situated approach’s usability and usefulness. This approach shows a decrease in performance (task completion time and errors) for more complex tasks but no significant differences in user experience scores when compared to the immediate situated approach. The findings indicate that while results may depend strongly on factors such as the realism of the virtual environment, the immediate physical referent offered some advantages over the proxied one in the contextualization of data.


situated analysis, proxied situated visualization, immediate situated visualization, virtual reality, augmented reality, immersive analytics, dam safety control, structural health monitoring

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